In 2016, I had the opportunity to assess shrimp farms in Ecuador, Nicaragua and Vietnam, where culture systems ranged from extensive farming to high intensive facilities; from a traceability paper-based system to a traceability software support system. I also assessed several shrimp processors located in China and in Vietnam. Interviews with production managers from Cojimies in Ecuador, the Mekong delta river in Vietnam to the Pacific coast in Nicaragua also were carried out.
Each of these production systems had specific features to ensure traceability and accountability from the hatchery, stocking, growing, harvesting, transporting through the processing stage and until the shipment of the goods. Some used traceability systems based on paper and others incorporated sophisticated software. The size of the company definitely has a role to play in the complexity of the traceability system.
Consistency of collected data is a term that relates to ‘comprehensive connections’. Data consistency in traceability systems in the shrimp farms and in the processing facilities is sometimes missing. The lack of data consistency directly affects transaction consistency and therefore the integrity and transparency of the traceability system implemented by the organization
Without transparency the shrimp operation might easily fall into a fraud.